Theoretical paper


Academic paper summarising and evaluating the project and reviewing matters arising from it in the context of the theory and practice associated with professional standards and competence frameworks internationally.


  • Different conceptions of ‘competence’ including ‘internal’ versus ‘external’ models
  • Established and emerging models of competence in partner and other European countries
  • Different conceptions of competence in the different partner countries and in EU-level instruments, relative merits, how they interact
  • Issues of applying the concept of competence to higher-level occupations
  • Issues encountered through the development and trialling process
  • Conclusions